Laying hens require a special diet. It is necessary to immediately take care of the health of the Chicks. A first-aid kit is prepared for them. It contains everything necessary for the first preventive measures. It is recommended to buy a “first-Aid kit # 1 or #2”. The kits are slightly different, but each of them contains vitamin complexes, antibiotics and a drug for coccidiosis.
Especially sensitive to coccidiosis are laying chickens, but home-grown egg Chicks pass with fewer losses than when breeding broiler stock. What are the features noted for the breeding of laying hens? How to feed the young and adult herd?
Immediately after the Chicks hatch in the incubator and dry out, it is recommended to place them in the brooder. This is a cage in which the optimal microclimate for livestock is maintained. No more than 15 heads are placed on 1 m 2. In the brooder, provide feeders and drinkers.
If the Chicks came from eggs that were hatched by the mother hen, then a chicken is also placed in the brooder. Choose a larger cell area. In it, young egg breeds are 2 weeks old. After that, the population is dispersed: the Chicks grow quickly. In 2 weeks on 1 m 2 should not be more than 10 heads. In the month of crowding of individuals-7 heads per 1 m 2 . Then the chicken is removed from the young ones. Individuals are placed in cages for further cultivation.
To make both the chicken and Chicks comfortable, they use a different method of keeping them on the floor. Before placing livestock in the room, it must be cleaned and disinfected. The walls are treated with a solution of slaked lime. Granules or powder of lime is poured on the floor: 1 kg/m2 . After that, the litter is laid. Most often, straw or large shavings are used. You can cover the floor with a peat or sawdust.
The window is painted over with white dye so that the livestock and hen are not under direct sunlight. In the room, feeders and waterers are necessarily equipped for both young and laying hens. It is necessary to provide a nest where the hen and her brood will be located.
Often day-old Chicks are kept in a spacious box. The floor is covered with a soft blanket or sheet. Jude suggests to use newspaper or cardboard slip-resistant: it is easier to change. An infrared lamp is installed above the livestock, which is a heating device. Young animals can stay in the box for 2 weeks. After this, individuals are placed either in cages or in a chicken coop on the floor.
There are some advantages of cage-based poultry rearing over the floor-based method of keeping:
- the Chicks are easier to care for: the cage is easier to wash than to clean up the chicken coop;
- the livestock is growing fast and gaining weight;
- it is possible to control the feeding of the chicken;
- reduces the risk of infection spreading;
- the probability of coccidiosis development is practically eliminated;
- the efficiency of feed usage is noted;
- in the future, laying hens in cages are better laid.
Breeding livestock in a freeway simplifies the work of a poultry breeder. There is no need to build cages and equip them with everything necessary. The litter is often not changed. On the floor only add new hay or straw. If the young ones grow up with a hen, then she herself will teach the Chicks to peck food, drink water, look for worms and insects, and use the ashy bathrooms.
The main disadvantage of free maintenance is that young people often get sick. The infection rate is 100%: pathogens are transmitted through common feeders and drinkers. There is a high risk of coccidiosis, which manifests itself when helminths enter the body. They can be in dirty litter.
Another drawback is the inefficient use of feed. The young ones scatter their food on the floor, trampling it into the litter. Starlings constantly come up with adaptations to make feeding the flock more economical.
With the cellular content of chickens, there is no exercise. Individuals do not move much, which can negatively affect the development of young animals. They may lack not only active movements, but also fresh air. In the summer, the livestock is recommended to walk in aviaries.
At poultry farms, individuals are trained to cages from birth. A certain regime of growing and caring for young animals is maintained. The diet is completely absent, but experts note in the future high productivity of laying hens.
Whatever method of keeping is chosen for the young, under the hen, floor or cage, the Chicks need to create a certain microclimate in the room. They should be warm and bright. They maintain optimal humidity in the chicken coop. They monitor the cleanliness of the air.
- 1 week – the air temperature is 35 C.
- 2 weeks – 33 S.
- Gradually reduce the temperature by 2-3 degrees each week.
- In 1.5 months, the air temperature can be 20 C.
- The optimal temperature for a 2-3-month-old bird is 16-18 C.
- Adult chickens normally feel at a temperature of 10-12 C.
If the newborn Chicks are warm, they are active, eat well, and respond to sound. If it is cold in the chicken coop, the young are gathered under the lamp in a herd, bumping into each other. At high temperatures, the Chicks sit separately, do not move much, and do not eat well.
- Humidity in the room in the first week withstand 75%.
- 2 weeks – 70%.
- You can gradually reduce the humidity to 65%.
At high or low humidity, individuals develop inflammatory processes. They can sneeze and cough. The cornea of the eyes becomes inflamed. There is a decrease in the quality of plumage. Increased humidity gives a favorable soil for the reproduction of helminths in the litter.
For Chicks, the light mode is important. It affects the growth and development of young animals. It is recommended to use an infrared lamp for livestock. It is not bright, it warms the room well.
|1||1 week-lights are not turned off for days|
|2||2 the lights are turned off for 2 hours every week|
|3||3 week – duration of the day is 20 hours|
|4||1 month-the light stays on for 18 hours|
|5||2 months-light day-16 hours|
|6||3 month – 14 hours|
Before puberty, the light day is maintained at 12-14 hours. This is necessary so that the laying hen does not start to lay eggs too early. They will be incomplete, small. This cannot be corrected by any medications or dietary supplements.
Normally, egg-laying hens bring the first clutch in 4 months. Starting from this time, the light day is increased to 16 hours. This is the optimal mode, which is necessary for the normal egg production of the bird. With each clutch, the weight of eggs will increase. The light mode should be monitored especially in winter when the nights are long. The light in the chicken coop is turned on at 6.00 am and turned off at 22-23.00.
A long day and bright light in the chicken coop can change the behavior of livestock. Individuals become irritable and aggressive. The split may begin. Poultry productivity is declining.
What to do immediately after the appearance of Chicks?
With the hen, it is more difficult. It is necessary to carefully remove the Chicks from the nest so that the chicken does not notice their absence. Otherwise, the hen may leave the clutch. The eggs will freeze, and the Chicks will not hatch. The young are placed under a lamp. After all the eggs are hatched, the hen is also removed from the nest. At this time, the chicken coop is cleaned and disinfected.
- In the period prokleta chick drinks the remaining liquid yolk. This allows him to go without food for up to 10 hours. The first thing that needs to be done is to give livestock sugar water or glucose. This will give the Chicks strength, reduce stress, and increase their resistance to diseases.
- After 6 hours, the chickens are fed. Boil the eggs, chop them, and pour them into the feeder. The serving is 5 g per head.
- In the drinking bowl pour boiled water, warmed to a temperature of 20 C.
- Feeding is carried out every 2 hours, even at night.
If the Chicks do not eat, it means that they do not know how to peck. It is necessary to tap the feeder with your finger so that the young ones can see it. They will repeat the movements and start eating food. Usually, the first lesson is given to the Chicks by the mother hen. She also looks after the behavior of the young, drives everyone to the feeder, punishes too active individuals who repel other Chicks from eating or drinking.
On the first day, no more events are held. It is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the litter or pallet of the cage. If necessary, it should be washed with a disinfectant. Growing and caring for young animals is not just about maintaining an optimal maintenance regime. It is necessary to feed the chickens correctly, so that in the future the hens show good productivity.
Feeding of young animals
Laying hens are most often fed traditional feed when raised at home. On poultry farms use a combination of the mixture. The second day begins for livestock grazing with vitamins. Individuals give “Tectonic” or other drugs. In 1 liter of boiled water, add 1 ml of the product. In 2 hours after the young are satiated with vitamins, feeding begins. The diet is already more varied. It includes, in addition to eggs, millet, cottage cheese, greens.
As greens, give parsley, dill, nettle, dandelions, carrot tops or boiled carrots. All ingredients are crushed with a knife, carrots are grated on a fine grater. Begin to give meshanks with the addition of yogurt.
- Egg 2 g, greens 1 g.
- Millet 5 g, yogurt 5 g, cottage cheese 1 g.
- Drink with vitamins.
The diet is maintained for laying hens and for 3 days. The portion is 15 g. the chicken Should not remain hungry. Pay attention to its goiter. After feeding, it is enlarged and slightly elongated. From 4 to 10 days, the diet begins to introduce cake and minerals. Use sunflower seed cake or press cake of soya. As mineral substances give chalk, crushed shell, crushed eggshell. The portion for future laying hens is 24-25 g.
- Egg 2 g, greens 3 g, chalk 0.4 g.
- Millet 9 g, cottage cheese 1.5 g, cake 0.2 g.
- On the 4th day, potassium permanganate is added to the water.
The food at week 3 is distinguished by the introduction of meat and bone flour and root vegetables. As a root crop, boiled potatoes are given. It is washed, cooked together with the skin, crushed with a fork. Give in the form of heat. The serving is 43-44 g. Boiled eggs are no longer allowed.
- Millet 13 g, flour 1 g, yogurt 7 g, cottage cheese 2 g.
- Potatoes 4 g, greens 7 g, yogurt 8 g, cake 0.5 g
- Chalk 0.7 g
By 1 month, the diet has already introduced all the products necessary for the full growth of young animals. Now their volume is gradually increasing. Feeding is carried out 6 times a day. Night feedings are canceled.
- Millet or crushed wheat 22 g
- Potatoes and greens for 10 g.
- Cottage cheese 3 g, curd 20 g
- Cake 0,6 g, flour 1,4 g, chalk 1 g.
- The user enters a pebble of 1 g / head.
In the 2nd month, they switch to 4 meals a day. A chicken can eat 120 g. This is the norm of an adult bird. The amount of feed is distributed as follows:
- crushed wheat 48 g, potatoes 30 g, greens 18 g.
- cottage cheese 5 g, yogurt 30 g.
- cake and chalk 2 g, flour 4 g, salt 0.2 g.
At 2 months, the chicken already looks like a chicken. It weighs about 1 kg. Individuals of egg breeds do not gain more weight. After 2 months from laying hens, you should expect the first laying. The feed is increased by 30 g. Administered in the diet or vitamin supplements may be given to the number of “Tectonica”.