Increasingly, farmers are turning their attention to raising goats. Healthy milk, delicious meat, wool… No wonder. But is it always possible to achieve the desired results when keeping them in the household?
GOATS ARE THE BEST CHOICE FOR DOMESTIC ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
- This is one of the most unpretentious individuals both in maintenance and care, and in feeding.
- Compared to sheep, goats are much cleaner and smarter.
- They are more attached to a person than many other Pets.
- Feed needs six times less than a cow.
- Perfectly eat even those feeds that other Pets can not and will not eat – even use branch feed. Absolutely everything will go into the feed: from straw to tops and weeds.
- A room for them can be made by anyone – this does not require any special knowledge and skills, and you can also use any construction waste to build it.
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All you need to start with is a small plot of land, some inventory that you can make with your own hands, your time and a little effort.
Products obtained from white-tailed fish have a number of excellent advantages and valuable qualities.
- there are no allergies to goat’s milk;
- the fat molecules in goat’s milk are much smaller than in cow’s milk, so it is easier for the body to digest it at any, even the earliest age;
- goat’s milk, unlike cow’s, has an alkaline reaction, and therefore people can drink it, even if they suffer from heartburn;
- the amount of vitamins in goat milk is many times higher than in cow’s milk;
- goat’s milk has a composition that helps the human body successfully fight diseases and strengthens the immune system;
- milk is bactericidal, so it can be stored for a very long time even without a refrigerator;
- its fat content is higher than that of cow’s milk (from 4 to 6 %).
- in terms of protein content, goat meat is close to mutton, but contains less fat;
- goat meat is better absorbed by the body, does not cause allergies.
- it is very strong, light and easy to spin;
- it has not only the best qualities as a material, but also has valuable healing properties.
- Manure is an excellent fertilizer for field cultivation and horticulture. Compared to cow manure, it requires two to three times less for the same amount of area.
Where to start?
You can start by buying an adult animal, or you can start by purchasing young ones. Each case has its own positive and negative sides.
The advantages and disadvantages of adult cattle it is easy to see if you know some rules in the selection of imanok:
First, the animal’s physique is evaluated. The mammary individual will have a fairly strong backbone, strong legs, a back without bends, a chest-wide, the limbs do not close together.
Jaws should be free of malformations: well closed between each other, have a proportional length. If the horned one jaw is shorter than the other, then this is considered a significant defect – nutrition in this case is very difficult. But milk yield directly depends on the amount of food consumed.
The udder should be large, spherical or pear-shaped, but greatly reduced in size after milking, the nipples are regular, proportional, without wounds and other defects.
Milk yield must be evaluated: the quality of milk, its quantity, taste. In young individuals, the assessment of milk is made by the mother and father.
In this way, the purchased livestock is evaluated. They also pay attention to the availability of documents, veterinary certificates and the cost.If everything is more or less clear here, then the situation with choosing a good young stock is a little more complicated, and there are some little tricks here.
When you are going to buy a kid, it is better not to take it at the market. Dishonest people may not admit that the young are derived from a related mating, and such young are usually very painful. Take a good look at the mother, evaluate her build, proportions, udder. Some experienced goat breeders advise you to smell the skin between the horns of the mother before buying young animals. If there is no unpleasant smell for you, then you will like the milk. It is noted that this smell is inherited.
When examining a kid, you need to pay attention to the following points:
It can not have any curvature of the limbs, spine, genitals must be located correctly.
health. Under the tail should not be visible any traces of diarrhea, the tummy is not swollen, does not purr;
behavior. A good healthy baby will show interest in everything, have fun and jump;
wool should Shine in the sun.
It is better to take a goat at the age of two weeks, first asking the owners to feed it with mother’s milk 4-5 times a day until that time. After 10-12 days, the baby should drink 300 g of milk and already chew hay leaves.
After 2-2. 5 weeks after purchase, the young can be transferred gradually to cow’s milk with the addition of brewed oatmeal (two liters of milk brew one tablespoon of oatmeal and half a teaspoon of salt). Slowly increase the rate of oatmeal to a very liquid jelly. Enter this rate of drinking gradually, up to 1.5-2 months. In addition, it is necessary to feed the young with root vegetables, crushed grain. All feedings should be available to the goats at all times. And you also need to remember about access to clean, warm water.
Building a shed
If you are seriously thinking about not just keeping one or two goats, but about breeding them, then you need not only to feel like a master, but also to be one. Learn to understand the habits of your animals, their needs, ways of keeping and feeding them .
It is not necessary to build a goat shed very warm. It can be built from simple boards, but make sure that there are no drafts. In areas with a harsh climate, the barn is insulated only before the onset of cold weather. To do this, the ceiling is filled with sawdust, straw or other materials. Walls can be filled in-this is the cheapest and most cost-effective way. It is not necessary to keep adult cattle in very warm rooms. They tolerate frost well, but are very afraid of dampness. Provide ventilation in the room.
In the barn, the device of wooden floors is not necessary at all. It is quite good to tamper the earth inside the room. Places for animals to spend the night are arranged in different ways. You can separate the corner of the shed with planks and cover it with a deep litter. But more goats like to sleep on special beds made of planks, with small slits for the free flow of urine. They are raised above the level of the earthen floor by 30-40 cm, so that they always remain dry. With this maintenance, you will not need to prepare materials for the litter and spend extra money on it.
The shed is well fenced into three rooms. The first will be the dining room. Here on one wall hang a manger for hay, along the other put decks for dry feed. The third wall is placed in the deck for water and a small trough for the salt and other supplements.
The second room is a walking hall. It is necessary for long-term stable maintenance in winter. Cattle should move to prevent hypodynamia and its unpleasant consequences. This is especially important for pregnant Queens and young animals. Every breeder should know that long walks of pregnant Queens are a guarantee of an easy Okot.
The third room is intended for Queens. But it is necessary to settle them here only after lambing. Moreover, each uterus should have a separate pen. In the wild, goats in the mountains hide in crevices where no one can see them. It is noted that by arranging conditions close to natural, people contribute to the faster development of young animals. In such conditions, the young goats feel more comfortable and calm. And only three months after the Okot, the Queens can be kept together with others in a common pen, looking after them and their offspring for the first time.
If there are restless, pugnacious individuals in the herd, then it is desirable to keep them on a leash. But in such a way that they can see the other animals clearly and don’t feel alone. Adult goats are kept separately from milking Queens due to their physiological feature – the presence of a sharp peculiar smell. It easily impregnates the milk when milking, and it is unlikely that anyone will like it. Therefore, the goats are isolated behind a blank wall, which will prevent this smell from entering the milking parlor. In its premises, ventilation, lighting (artificial and natural) and organize feeders and waterers are also arranged.
If you plan to breed a large herd to get milk, then you will have to provide another room. It is equipped with special milking machines and a place for treatment. Many diseases are detected during milking, because here it is possible to examine the animal well, its udder, coat and pay attention to many other signs.
In addition to the construction and equipment of facilities for goats, it is necessary to arrange for them also a paddock yard There are also goat feeders located here: separately for bulk feed, water decks, a manger for hay or green grass. All feeders should be placed under canopies to prevent precipitation from entering the feed. Thus, the feed will not become moldy, rot and will be well-eaten. In addition, under the canopies, the animals themselves will be able to shelter during extreme heat, rain or strong wind. The device of feeders should be thought out in such a way that the distribution of feed is carried out outside the yard for the convenience of servicing animals.
When planning a yard area, do not forget about another feature of these animals – they can easily jump over very high fences. And therefore, if you do not want to quarrel with your neighbors, it is worth building fences in the yard of sufficient size. The recommended height is at least 150 cmif the yard is open and the manure layer is expected to increase from one planned cleaning of the yard to the next. The fence can be made both plank and wire (from a chain — link grid –the best option).
Cattle can be kept both without a guard in the yards all year round (if necessary), and grazing in the summer on the pasture. If you are not going to breed a large number of livestock, then one or a couple of animals can be kept in premises with other livestock. To do this, they separate a small part of the common barn and organize everything for their comfortable living. This neighborhood has both advantages and disadvantages. The invaluable experience you have gained over time and the advice of experienced goat breeders will definitely help you do everything right and get everything you expected from your goats.
HOW TO FEED A GOAT
One of the most significant arguments for the popularity that keeping goats at home deserves is the simplicity and cheapness of feeding these animals.
As with any other ruminant animals, the white tail’s diet is based on plant-based feed. A highly developed, powerful digestive track allows it to eat even such food that seems almost inedible: bitter herbs, prickly weeds, some mildly poisonous plants, shrubs and various waste products of human activity.
Due to the complex structure of the digestive tract, many poisonous plants, when digested in several parts of the stomach, lose their toxic properties and do not cause any harm or affect the animal’s body very little. Thanks to this, they can graze even on such pastures, which are dominated by coarse herbage, or there is a large number of poisonous plants, without harming their health.
But still, it is not right to focus only on pastures of this type. They can only be used as needed. Grazing of goats on good pastures has not yet been canceled. And it is clear that to get more products from your animals, feeding goats should be complete and sufficient.
A novice breeder needs to know that each adult goat needs from 6 to 9 kg of green grass per day.
At the same time, each owner chooses the method of feeding their Pets independently. Some prefer to put animals on a leash, periodically transferring the joke to a new place. Others generally keep their Pets in their yards all year round, providing them with cut grass in summer or hay in winter. The next – just release the animals, the fourth graze them in herds. Each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages, here the choice is up to the owner of the animals. Only he can clearly assess all his abilities and desires and make the only correct choice.
So what else but green grass is food for the goats?
Well, first of all, it’s hay. It is harvested according to all the rules in the summer, stored so as to preserve all its useful and nutritious qualities. In winter, hay is distributed to feeders and provides free access to them for all animals. In addition to hay, it is very good to prepare brooms from coniferous and deciduous trees, various shrubs and even tops.
It is necessary to feed animals with concentrates according to their norms, various root vegetables, vegetables, fruit pods, kitchen waste, bread residues, etc. At the same time, animals should always have free access to clean warm water, salt and mineral fertilizers.
Approximate ration in the stable period of time for one day:
- 350 grams of concentrates (crushed grain);
- 700 grams of root vegetables;
- 2-3 kilograms of hay;
- there’s plenty of good straw for the night.
HOW TO CARE FOR A GOAT
According to experienced goat breeders, the main thing in caring for these valuable animals is the ability to observe them, understand their needs and provide them with comfortable living conditions. To do this, it is desirable to know the features of their physiology, for example, reproduction, digestion, milk productivity and much more.
What is required of you to successfully grow goats in your household?
- Properly organize the conditions of keeping and feeding;
- To organize the reproduction of animals;
- To monitor the condition of the udder of animals;
- Time to carry out pruning and clearing of hooves;
- Properly cut and comb;
- Properly organize the rearing of young animals;
- Monitor the health of animals, prevent poisoning, injuries, etc.;
- Make routine vaccinations of animals and participate in routine examinations of them.
It is obvious that if you follow these simple rules, while ensuring good conditions for feeding and keeping your favorite goats, you will definitely get the desired result and provide yourself and your loved ones with the most valuable products of goat breeding.