In the chicken coop, they maintain a certain mode. Organize feeding. For laying hens, and for broilers, the diet will be different. The main food for all birds is wheat and barley. Protein supplements are used for the growth of muscle mass and full-fledged eggs. Give calcium in the form of chalk, shells and eggshells. For laying hens, this is necessary to ensure that the eggshell gland in the oviduct works correctly.
The amount of mineral salts in the diet depends on the strength of the skeleton. This is especially important for broilers and for individuals of meat breeds. What kind of chickens are bred at home? How are the care and feeding performed?
Breeds of chickens
For the production of eggs, a bird of egg breed is grown. They consume 120-150 g of feed per day. In a year give up to 360 eggs. Egg production decreases during molting, but after plumage, it is restored. Chickens are not of good meat quality. From them, a carcass weighing 800 g is obtained. Hens from the hens are bad. They can’t stay in the nest for long. The meat is tough and stringy. Domestic poultry farming is not characterized by a large number of livestock. The following breeds of laying hens are bred in farmsteads:
- Leghorn; white plumage, pale metatarsals, bright red crest; suitable for novice poultry breeders; laying hens are unpretentious; roosters have a fighting character;
- Poltava; light brown plumage with a white breast; tail feathers on the tail are directed upwards; they are often bred at poultry farms; laying hens are precocious; the first laying is carried out at 5 months;
- Pushkin line; more often choose the Moscow line than the St. Petersburg line; it is more beautiful; has a variegated plumage of black and white; eggs bring no more than 200 PCs., but they are large up to 60 g; in factories, they are rarely bred; Jude recommend it for novice poultry breeders ; chickens can withstand reduced temperatures, but not below zero degrees;
- Loman brown; individuals are similar to the Poltava breed, but its plumage is entirely brown; roosters have long braids in the tail, black and green; the breed has a good survival rate of chickens; they have an increased innate immunity;
- Dominant; the breed is similar to Pushkin’s, but has a more stocky build; factories do not raise chickens; they give no more than 200 eggs a year; the bird will suitably decorate the courtyard with its plumage.
Egg-meat breeds of chickens are preferred for farmsteads. From them, you can get 120 eggs a year, but for the scale of poultry farms, this is not enough. A chicken carcass weighs about 3 kg, but to do this, you need to grow a bird up to 1.5 years. Egg-meat breeds of chickens belong to the late-maturing ones. They carry out the first laying closer to 8 months. Poultry farms prefer to breed broilers. From them, after 45 days, they receive a carcass of 2 kg. From the hens make good brooding hens.
The following breeds are bred in farmsteads:
- plymutrok; individuals are similar to the Pushkin breed, but have a large build; the bird is very beautiful, roosters have long braids in the tail; egg production is 180 PCs. per year; egg weight 60 g;
- new Hampshire; individuals are similar to lomans, but they are not as active as laying hens; their muscle mass is high; the weight of a chicken is more than 3 kg, a rooster can weigh up to 5 kg;
- Rhode island; individuals have a large weight, but look taut; the color of the plumage on the back is dark brown; the rest of the body is covered with light feathers; in a year, they can produce an average of 170 eggs weighing up to 70 g.
Meat breeds of chickens for obtaining meat in farmsteads are rarely bred. They often serve as an ornament of the economy. Laying hens can produce 1 egg in 3 days. During the molt period, oviposition in them ceases. Birds are unpretentious. The survival rate of chickens is 98%. Due to their dense plumage, they can tolerate frosts well, can walk through the snow and look for green grass under it. For novice poultry breeders, breeding meat stock will be a good school. They are not whimsical in their food and content.
Often the following breeds of chickens can be found in farmsteads:
- kokhinhinin; plumage is thick; even the metatarsals are covered with feathers; birds are large, more than 5 kg; the color varies from fawn to black;
- Brama; chickens have white plumage with a collar of variegated black and white feathers; they have a strong Constitution, but they do not look massive; there are individuals with gray, partridge, blue plumage;
- Corniche; chickens are bred on poultry farms for meat; their plumage is white; laying hens bring 180 eggs a year.
Before you start breeding a bird in the yard, you need to study its features of maintenance. Not all individuals can tolerate low temperatures, but only birds of meat breeds. For them, heat is contraindicated. In summer, they are kept in aviaries, but at high temperatures they are placed in cool chicken coops.
The care of the bird
Some starlings adapt sheds for birds, but this is wrong. In a barn, it is impossible to create good conditions for the existence of livestock. Experienced poultry farmers build chicken coops or keep their livestock in greenhouses made of polycarbonate: they set up the heating in them.
For chickens, a brooder is preferable. This is a cage for keeping young animals. In it, the Chicks stay for 2-3 weeks, then they are moved to cages for adult birds. In the brooder, the air humidity is maintained at 70%, gradually reducing it to 65%. The optimal temperature for day-old Chicks is 36 C: it is lowered by 1 degree per week. The brooder is equipped with a feeder and a drinking bowl. Keep the cage clean. Constantly air out.
|1||Chickens are assigned a certain diet. In 1 day they are given a boiled egg and green grass: dill, parsley. From green onions from the Chicks developed diarrhea. In the future, millet, cake, yeast, bone and fish meal are added to the diet. Be sure to give products that contain calcium. Microelements are necessary for young animals of both egg and meat breeds. Quantity of feed 10 g|
|2||With the 6-10 day the young are fed mash. They consist of crushed wheat, cottage cheese, cake, greens. Total serving – 24 g|
|3||11-20 days of feed chickens eat 40 g of Meshanki made with the use of yogurt|
|4||21-30 days – 52-55 g. Enter boiled potatoes and grated carrots|
|5||31-40-the volume of feed is 80 g. the main products are grain, cottage cheese, potatoes, grass, curd|
|6||41-50-serving of 70 g|
|7||51-60 feed give 100 g. The amount of calcium is reduced to 1 g. Eggshells are added to the mix. Begin to introduce small pebbles with a diameter of 2 mm|
The diet of meat-fed chickens is increased by 30%. In addition to grain, an important part of the mix is sunflower cake. Fish oil and vitamin supplements are necessary. The young ones are bigger and have more muscle mass. Sexual maturation in birds begins at six months.
For adults, the diet consists of the same products as for chickens, but the amount of feed varies. If an individual of an egg breed weighs up to 1 kg, then it is entitled to 120 g of feed. In the future, it can gain weight. For every 250 g of body weight gain, the bird is given an additional 10 g. pay attention to egg production. For every 10 eggs, the hen receives 10 grams of protein. The diet for meat-based birds is increased by 30%.
In the chicken coop, the length of daylight is observed. Light affects the growth of chickens and egg production of hens. For young animals, the light is not turned off for the first week around the clock. In most cases, the length of daylight hours is reduced by 2 hours each week. Gradually bring the day to the norm of 16-18 hours.
A longer day affects egg production. Laying hens bring small eggs, but their number increases. Negative manifestations are also observed in the behavior of birds. They may begin to split up. If the day lasts less than 14 hours, then the laying hens will bring fewer eggs, the young ones with a short day do not grow well.
Jude carries out preventive measures against infectious diseases. In addition to vaccinations, livestock is fed antibiotics, manganese and vitamin cocktails. When avitaminosis is obvious, therapy is prescribed: vitamins are injected with a pipette through the mouth.
Poultry farming at home is not just about breeding productive birds. More and more starlings acquire decorative chickens. Almost every breed of meat productivity has dwarf counterparts. Small hens lay small eggs, no more than 90 PCs. per year. When feeding, the weight of the individual is taken into account. On average, they receive the same amount of feed as two-month-old Chicks.